Carmen M. Mangion is currently a lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London. Her research interests focus on the history of modern Britain and Ireland, concentrating on gender, religion and the medical marketplace. Her current research looks at nineteenth-century Catholic women religious, health care and social welfare. She has published several essays and book reviews on women religious and her monograph Contested Identities: Catholic Women Religious in nineteenth-century England and Wales was published by Manchester University Press in 2008. With Laurence Lux-Sterritt, she co-edited Gender, Catholicism and Spirituality: Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe, 1200-1900 (2010). Her latest publication, Volume 6 of English Convents in Exile (2013), an edited collection of documents on Convents and the Outside World, has just been published by Pickering and Chatto.